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Guidelines for authors

Here you will find useful information for submiting your paper. Please read the instructions carefully to avoid desk rejection. This guidelines describe aspectes related to:

  1. Preparation of your paper

  2. Copyright form

  3. Checklist of items to be sent

  4. Acknowledgements

  5. Appendix

  6. References

Also you will find a brief guide to make the submission via EasyChair.

Submission guide

Preparation of your paper

Papers should be sumitted electronically following the Springer style format. The LaTex and MS Word templates are available at the next buttons

Author names, affiliations and ORCIDs

Write the names authors and insert their ORCIDs in superscript next to the names. Authors’ names should be written out in full in the header of the paper. They are shortened by us to “initials surname” in the running heads and take the form “sur-name, given name” in the author index. Affiliations institutions (including town/city and country listed directly below the names of the authors, in the next line write the Email-Addresses of the authors.

Corresponding author

Should be clearly marked in the header of the paper. The inclusion of the corresponding author’s email address is mandatory.


The abstract is mandatory element that should summarize the contents of the paper and should contain up to 250 words. Use 9pt font size for abstract and 10pt for the text.


They should be separated by middots. The first letter of each keyword should be capitalized.


Should be capitalized and except for the title, should be aligned to the left. The next table shows the characteristics of the headings.

Heading level


Font size and style

Title (centered)

Title (centered)

14 point bold

1st level heading

1 Introduction (numbered)

12 point bold

2nd level heading

2.1 Printing Area (numbered)

10 point bold

3rd level heading

Run-in Heading in Bold Text follows

10 point bold

4th level heading

Lowest Level Heading. Text follows

10 point italic

Length of papers

Papers should be with a length between eight (8) and eleven (11) pages, in English. There is no need to include page numbers or running heads.

Figures and Tables

All illustrations must be clear and legible. Vector graphics (rather than rasterized images) should be used for diagrams and schemas whenever possible. Please check that the lines in line drawings are not interrupted and have a constant width. Grids and details within the figures must be clearly legible and may not be written one on top of the other. Line drawings are to have a resolution of at least 800 dpi (preferably 1200 dpi). The lettering in figures should not use font sizes smaller than 6 pt (~ 2 mm character height). Figures are to be numbered and to have a caption which should always be positioned under the figures. Figures and Tables should be cross referred in the text.
Captions are set in 9-point type. If they are short, they are centered between the margins. Longer captions, covering more than one line, are justified. Captions that do not constitute a full sentence, do not have a period. 
If screenshots are necessary, please make sure that the essential content is clear to the reader. 
Remark 1. In the printed volumes, illustrations are generally black and white (half-tones). Colored pictures are welcome in the electronic version. If you send colored figures that are to be printed in black and white, please make sure that they really are also legible in black and white.


Displayed equations or formulae are centered and set on a separate line (with an extra line or half line space above and below). Equations should be numbered for reference. The numbers should be consecutive within the contribution, with numbers enclosed in parentheses and set on the right margin. If you are using Word, please use the Math function of Word 2007, Word 2010 or Word 2013, or MathType or the Microsoft Equation Editor with Word 2003, to create your equations, and insert the math objects in your Word document in an editable format through MathType or MsWord equation editors.


The superscript numeral used to refer to a footnote appears in the text either directly after the word to be discussed or – in relation to a phrase or a sentence – following the punctuation mark (comma, semicolon, or period).1 
For remarks pertaining to the title or the authors’ names, in the header of a paper, symbols should be used instead of a number (see first page of this document). Please note that no footnotes may be included in the abstract.
Program Code. Program listings or program commands in the text are normally set in typewriter font.

Citations by Number

Citations by Number. Arabic numbers are used for citation, which is sequential either by order of citation or by alphabetical order of the references, depending on which sequence is used in the list of references. The reference numbers are given in brackets and are not superscript. Please observe the following guidelines: 
Single citation: [9] 
Multiple citation: [4-6, 9]. The numbers should be listed in numerical order.
Sequential citation by order of citation: reference 7 cannot be cited before reference 5, for example. 
If an author’s name is used in the text: Miller [9] was the first … 
Please write all references using the Latin alphabet. If the title of the book you are referring to is, e.g., in Russian or Chinese, then please write (in Russian) or (in Chi-nese) at the end of the transcript or translation of the title. Do not include references to pieces of work that are not connected with your paper.
In order to permit cross referencing within SpringerLink, and between different publishers and their online databases, Springer standardizes the format of the refer-ences according to the requirements for CrossRef ( We strongly encourage you to include DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers) in your references.

Ethics and Permissions

All authors must comply with our ethical standards, as detailed on our Editorial Policies page and in our Code of Conduct. 
If figures, tables, animations or text quotations from copyrighted works (including websites) are included in your paper, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder (usually the original publisher) and the author(s) for both the print and the online format, and full references must be included. 
Papers submitted for publication must present original work by the authors themselves that has not previously been submitted or published elsewhere. Proceedings papers may be checked by our plagiarism-checking tool on their arrival at Springer.


Avoidance of Self-plagiarism

A certain overlap in scientific content between articles by the same author is standard practice and to be expected. However, it is essential that transparency is retained, and appropriate references included. Permission must be obtained from other publishers, where appropriate.

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